Evolution for Dummies

March 28, 2013

As Heidi Klum says on her TV show Project Runway, "One day you are in, the next day you are out."

As Heidi Klum says on her TV show Project Runway, “One day you are in, the next day you are out.”

Do the same evolutionary principles that drive life on earth fashion universal forces as well? 

In my recent Botany and Plant Ecology classes I have learned about the principles that guide evolution. Understanding these principles may help the human species survive.

Evolution is all about the future. The goal of each species is the survival of the greatest number of its offspring. The present matters only as a set of conditions in which the species must prevail. First, the organism must survive the conditions itself. Second, it must be able to produce offspring capable of surviving the conditions under which that generation finds itself.

Because of evolution, the conditions each generation encounters will always change, even if  environmental conditions remain the same. Each successive generation is at least marginally better suited to the conditions that existed for the previous generation. Therefore, if the environment remains the same for both generations, the offspring face better, tougher competitors than their parents faced. Each organism competes not just with its own species, but with all other species as well. Evolution is the ultimate Quality Assurance Continuous Improvement Program.

Evolution is both ruthless and intelligent. It requires death in order to operate. It is utterly objective or “fair,”no favorites or special privileges. Either you cut it or you don’t, same with your kids. But it is excellent at picking winners, rewarding only the most suitable organisms.

But the environment, nature, the universe does change both gradually and suddenly. How does evolution respond? As Heidi Klum says on each episode of Project Runway, “One day you are in, the next day you are out!”  Organisms that thrive in one environment may be utterly untenable in new conditions.  Moreover, it is not the present time or the individual organism that matters. The organism is only important insofar as it improves outcomes for the next generation.

As when the oxygen mask drops down in the aircraft, the parent must first survive at least long enough to insure its child will make it. After that, the child’s own adaptability is the key to its survival. A changing environment therefore favors variety, diversity. If all the organisms of a species are exactly alike, they may all do well in Condition A. But they may all die together in Condition B. The species with the greatest variety has the greatest chance that at least some of its members will survive Conditions B, C, and D. We must recognize the value of diversity and preserve it, not just to be “nice” but to make sure that we have the most different tricks up our sleeves to allow us to adapt to future unknowns.

So mutations, the new and the strange, are nonetheless good because they increase variety. Freak today, hero tomorrow. It is mutations that allow viruses and bacteria to survive each new vaccine and antibiotic we develop to annihilate them.

Humans are beginning to understand the ways in which we are just another organism on the planet. Yes, we may be the most highly evolved, but that only means we have adapted to previous and current conditions. Our cultures are extensions of ourselves and are part of our adaptation. They are a buffer between us and the external environment. Cultures evolve on their own too, as part of our species’ evolution.  But we can and often do make conscious changes to our cultures. Conscious, thinking, language-driven behavior is humankind’s distinctive competence.

It can also be our downfall. Our consciousness and ability to innovate often lead us into a trap…“the Titanic trap” or trap of hubris. We become deluded into thinking that we can control our own destiny. But we cannot. We are subject to the same external forces as all other organisms. It is scary to face this truth, a truth that is the basis of countless box-office thrillers. The cultures that survive may be the ones that have remained the most humble. Didn’t Jesus say “the meek will inherit the earth?”

In addition to humility, evolution teaches us that we must prioritize the future and our offspring ahead of the present and ourselves. American immigrants have always lived by this creed. But history demonstrates that wealth and comfort often lead to complacency about the future.

In an earlier post, I asked the question, “What if Evolution were God?” Do the same evolutionary principles that drive life on earth fashion universal forces as well? As science here and there pierces the veil of mystery surrounding the universe, isn’t each new discovery a revelation of an exquisite orderly omnipotent force inherent in both the most intimate detail and the unimaginable vastness of the cosmos?


Freedom evolves in Egypt

February 11, 2011

Today is historic. Thirty-two years to the day after the Iranian revolution deposing the Shah, the Egyptian people have successfully overthrown repressive dictator Hosni Mubarak.  The Iranian revolution resulted in the rise of fundamentalist Islam across the Arab world. Could today’s revolution mark the beginning of the end of that Islamic fundamentalism and all that it entails?

Today’s events are a celebration of the power of the individual spirit. The Eqyptians were inspired by the Tunisians, who were in turn inspired by the self-immolation of a frustrated fruit vendor in their country. Contemplate for a moment the unlikelihood that a fruit vendor in Tunisia of all places could change world events.

Have you seen the movie The Social Network? The movie may distort the truth in some ways. But Facebook, the social networking phenomenon that has spread around the world with breathtaking speed, is undoubtedly largely the product of another unlikely world hero, brilliant but socially inept Mark Zuckerberg. Today, the leader of the Eqyptian uprising asked on CNN that Mark Zuckerberg phone him, even as placards to Facebook are raised amidst the celebration in Tahrir Square in Cairo. (Young people may not know that CNN itself is the brainchild of another American innovator and misfit, Ted Turner.)

Older people often voice wonder at where the explosion in technology is leading us, as the world they knew and felt comfortable in disappears before their eyes. But this is the way of the world, and always has been, that for every new thing something old must fall away. Even in our discomfort with the new technologies, the power of these technologies to bring about positive change must be acknowledged and embraced.

Lastly, we are reminded that young people lead revolutions. Just as the young men and women of the 1940s earned the designation “The Greatest Generation” for making the world safe for democracy, so young people today have unprecedented power to bring about positive change in the world. To those who worry about the decline of America, remember that Zuckerberg and Facebook were made in America, the birthplace of political freedom and enduring hotbed of innovation of all kinds.

Going forward though, expect to see American young people collaborating with young people around the world to invent a future that embraces a common good. Today is a powerful example that history is indeed the story of  unfolding human spirit.

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